Napoleon was no Toussaint Louverture

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jafrikayiti
Posts: 218
Joined: Fri Dec 29, 2006 7:16 pm

Napoleon was no Toussaint Louverture

Post by jafrikayiti » Tue Feb 27, 2007 8:17 pm

A February 25, 2007 article, "The Black Napoleon" in the New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/25/books ... ei=5087%0A attracted my attention because, as a son of Haiti, I find that comparing Toussaint to Napoleon, beyond the fact that it is misleading, to be in fact a grave insult. Shall one dub a leader of resistance to Nazi Germany: "The Jewish Hitler"?

In his book "Le Crime de Napoléon", French author Claude Ribbe provides ample detail describing how Napoleon tried to accomplish a total genocide of the Africans who revolted against the lucrative system of racial slavery in the Caribbean. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Crime_of_Napoleon The very cover of Ribbe's book shows an actual photograph of Hitler paying hommage to Napoleon at his musoleum in Paris. Hitler was fascinated with the man from whom he had learned many tricks of eugenics, including the use of chemicals (sulfur dioxide) to conduct mass murder. No, Toussaint, the Grandson of the Gaou Ginou, King of the Aladas People of West Africa, was no Black Napoleon. Neither was Napoleon a white Toussaint.

I am also puzzled by this claim in the article that Toussaint "welded the rebel slaves into disciplined units, got French deserters to train them, incorporated revolution-minded whites and gens de couleur into his army...". The French army which Toussaint led at various times did have white, mulatto and black soldiers but there is no historical support for this exclusive characterization of whites in the French army led by Toussaint as being "revolution-minded". These whites were serving France, not the Haitian revolution. How many of them stood up by the side of the Africans and their revolution after Napoleon had betrayed, kidnaped, exiled and eventually murdered Toussaint?

Perhaps the authors were refering to the Polish soldiers who ended up leaving the French army that brought them to Haiti, after the French dictator Napoleon had invaded their own homeland? If so, I would agree that indeed some of the Polishmen found common interest with the Africans and they joined them in the struggle against tyranny.

However, to credit the French deserters (Polish or otherwise) for the training received by the rebel slaves is to be completely oblivious to the nature of the African maroons and the fact that many of them were quite knowledgeable in the art of warfare from their very own African homeland (see Jean Fouchard's Les Marrons de la liberté and Les Marrons du Syllabaire). Toussaint joined the maroons before joining the Spanish and then the French- not the other way around. As a General he provided training to everyone under his command - black, white or mulatto. So, I don't quite get this reference to French deserters providing "training" to people fighting against their own interest. There have always been desperate efforts to find white heroes that never existed in the Haitian revolution. Some have even suggested that it is the French Revolution that inspired the Haitian revolution. As if Africans were too stupid to realize on their own the unacceptability of their condition. Likewise, I remember going to the theatre to watch a film about Steven Biko, only to find out Cry Freedom was really yet another deppiction of Tarzan saving the natives - this time in Apartheid South Africa...Biko's life was merely a backdrop. Perhaps, it is the difficulty of playing up such a theme that makes it take so long before the Haitian Revolution arrives at the big screen, right brother Danny Glover? ( http://www.louverturefilms.com/ss ).

Also, the Africans of Haiti, who are still being punished for their bold resistance to white supremacy, did not win those victories of 1803 agaisnt the British, the Spanish and French armies, because of the work of ONE single man named Toussaint Louverture. This tendancy to isolate a successful African from the people that gave birth to his genius is too often seen in eurocentric writings. The reality is that African women and men were fighting from the shores of Africa and never stopped fighting. Among the earlier geniuses that led to the eventual abolition of racial slavery on the island, there are men like Makandal. Plimout, Makaya, Boukman; Women like Sesil Fatiman, Sanit Belè, Marijann Lamatinyè, Toya Mantou etc... And, after the French had betrayed General Toussaint Louverture who obviously credited them with much more humanity than they deserved, it was JEAN-JACQUES DESSALINES who led the Africans to victory. Dessalines who ?

For those who ask why have they never heard much about Dessalines, if it is he who is the ultimate liberator of Haiti, here is how one of Dessalines' natural enemies presented the situation of the whites in Haiti right after the declaration of independence:

[quote]"Former experience of the mildness and humanity of the blacks, inspired a hope of forgiveness and good treatment, notwithstanding the remembrance of recent circumstances, which might seem to preclude all expectation of mercy from that insulted and injured people.

The astonishing forbearance Toussaint, and of all who had served under him, encouraged a persuasion that their humanity, was not to be wearied out by any provocation. All the white inhabitants who had been carried off as hostages by Christophe, on his retreat from Cape Francois, had returned in safety, when the peace was made with Leclerc: and it was known that, during the whole time of their absence, they had been well treated by Toussaint and his followers; though the French, during that period, were refusing quarter to the negroes in the field, and murdering in cold blood all whom they took prisoners. But Toussaint was now no more and Dessalines was of a very different disposition".[/quote]
AMERICAN MISSIONARY REGISTER: OCTOBER, 1825 ( http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/ ... alines.htm )

So, Toussaint having ultimately fallen "victim" of the white supremacist clan, he is being showcased as a model of virtue. But Dessalines, who fought the beast (white supremacist racism) with 1/10th of the savagery that it had shown towards his people, is to be burried as long as possible? This tactic is not so different from the fake admiration we see often shown towards Martin Luther King Jr. by those who make it a duty to diminish Malcom X, or towards a weakened and trembling Nelson Mandela, in order to diminish Winnie-the Warrior-Mandela.

Let me take this opportunity to also mention that when Miranda went to Jacmel, Haiti, in February 1806, it was the Emperor Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who gave strict orders to General Magloire Ambroise to receive him well and offer him munitions and men in order to liberate Latin America. We know that since that time, the Africans of Haiti have been betrayed over and over again by Latin Americans with the notable exceptions of Fidel and Chavez... but that's another story; Right comrade Lula ?

Men like Dessalines and Toussaint do not have equals in U.S. or French history where so-called revolutions took place only to further entrench racial slavery and denial of its consequences to this day. For, unlike Napoleon, Dessalines and Toussaint weren't fighting to steal other people's resources. Unlike Thomas Jefferson, these illiterate men actually beleived it to be self-evident that all men were created equal. They did not enslave their own offspring born of rape ( http://www.samsloan.com/slaves.htm ).

Dessalines and Toussaint fought to free a people that had been kidnapped, humiliated, TERRORIZED for over 300 years. If they still are not getting their right place in history books, it is because the lions are still being chased - so the hunters may continue to tell their tales while wigging their tails to erase all trails. But, as sure as Osiris is dancing today because the usurpers of the story of his son Heru by Auset (Isis) have been "discovered" ( http://www.thestar.com/News/article/185708 ) http://members.tripod.com/jrmoore1958/c ... tml#osiris ), I know Dessalines and his people will eventually receive due REPARATIONS (material, mental and spiritual), here on earth.

jafrikayiti
Posts: 218
Joined: Fri Dec 29, 2006 7:16 pm

Napoleon Role Model to Hitler

Post by jafrikayiti » Sat Mar 17, 2007 11:21 am

Book Review on Napoleon Bonaparte
March 17, 2007 12:07 AM



The year 2005 in France ended with a bang. Riots in the poverty ridden towns that are homes
to ethnic minorities, who have been marginalised and banished in apartheid-like Bantustans, a social engineering invented by the mainstream in the land of liberty, equality and fraternity. The violent expressions of the impoverished of France, long time hidden from view by the hypocritical and supercilious governing elites, caught the attention of the globe unprepared. However, the rioting also made the divided minorities to discover that, in spite differences in pigmentations, in some cases or administrative in others; they are treated by those governing them as one lot.



Coincidentally, three weeks of revolts gave courage to others to express their dissatisfactions not through violence, but with the pen. This last form of protest has not gotten the attention of the Media like the frontal battles with Police and the setting alight of public buildings by angered youths. But fighters using the pen have their own advantages, for their effects last longer, leaving indelible marks, than the first form protest led by youths. Divulging of state secrets, especially those that concerns racial discriminations, long hidden by the state or those benefiting from it, was one of such methods utilised by those who could write. Nonetheless, a publication which is more than protest writing, written in French and called Le Crime de Napoleon which could be translated in English as the Crime of Napoleon, has angered many promoters of Napoleon Bonaparte within the political and Media circles in France or call them, France's elites.



Many self confessed blacks and whites fans of the dictator who died some 200 years ago, amongst whom there is a certain Dominique Devillepin, the embattled French Prime minister, had to cringe, when the book disclosing the genuine Napoleon hit book shop shelves. The book exposes with verifiable testimonies that, Napoleon was not just a venal warmonger whose love for conflicts set Europe in turmoil for 25 years and was only stopped by the British, it stripes Bonaparte naked. By showing the other macabre face of the dictator: racism, particularly his despise and hatred of Africans and people of African ancestry.



Claude Ribbe the author of the master piece dug out his precious information to supply his book from dusty historic manuscripts found at the national archives of France. He makes known to all that, Napoleon was not just a war monger amongst others of his many crimes. He was also ashamed of his African ancestry. In the book, we also discover that, Napoleon was the first organiser of genocide in the world. In other words, he holds the copy-rights in genocidal acts that have rocked humanity. Ribbe tells us that, on the instruction of Napoleon, more than 1 million French citizens were massacred.



Why? Simply because those targeted were Africans or of African ancestry and the massacres were carried out employing gruesome methods. Some samples of methods used in the mass destruction Africans or African slaves as noted in the book are difficult and emotional to read. One way Napoleon used to exterminate African slaves was to park his victims, men, women and children in ship hulls. Fire was eventually set on sulphured wigs, which were set at strategic places in the hull, the wigs, as it burned out, emitted a gaseous smoke, which suffocated the occupants to their painful death. Those who could not be suffocated in ship hulls were devoured by specially trained dogs, bought in the Island of Cuba that was still under Spanish control. While others were thrown at sea with sand filled jut bags tired around their necks, in order to make sure that, their drowning was certain with no chance of swimming to safety.



Those who were ethically cleans were African slaves, set free 8 years earlier and granted French citizenship in the royal edict of 28th March 1792 by King Louis VXI. But on the 16th of July 1802 Napoleon Bonaparte decided to re-establish slavery in France and in its dependencies, particularly those of Guadeloupe and Haiti. Haiti was then called Saint Domingo and grouped the French and Spanish parts of Isles-Espanola as Christopher Columbus named the island on his epic voyage in search of the sea route to India. However, things did not go as planned for Napoleon. For his men met with unexpected resistance in Guadeloupe and Haiti, where the free slaves stood their grounds in defence of freedom. In so doing, they upheld the precepts of Human rights and equality. But the freed slaves of Guadeloupe and Haiti paid dearly.



For Napoleon's men, namely Richepance and Gobert surprised with the resistance they met, opted for operation spare no black. Like in Haiti, Guadeloupe also has her own hero of resistance against the new establishment of slavery, ordered by Napoleon Bonaparte, he was Louis Delgres. Because of the resistance of Delgres and his group, all blacks arrested, resisting or not, male or female, big or small were summarily executed as from the 25th of May 1802. This was in the hope that, it will cause others to submit and go back under the chains, plantations and whips. The book also discloses why Haiti has no forest today.



Moreover, it is still under going intense economic and social problems that, some descendants of slavers are attributing to spurious reasons. The deforestation of Haiti was accelerated as from 1825 at the request of Napoleon, who threatened to invade the country if they refused to compensate White French citizens who were owners of slaves and who claimed that, they were dispossessed of their “properties”. The lost properties here that the Haitian White French settlers were complaining and requesting compensation were African slaves stolen from Africa.



Haiti, a country that had newly achieved its independence in blood on January 1st 1804 and was still reeling, had to pay France the sum of FF 90 million in Gold coins. The sum, being dues for the lost of African slaves whose only longings was freedom. The compensation was carried out in various forms, timber being one of them. Besides the massacre carried out in Guadeloupe and in Haiti, Napoleon or his emissaries had the gut to kidnap Toussaint Louverture, the hero of the Haitian revolution in a manner that had no respect for International law. For his was captured during a party meant to celebrate peace after Napoleon's soldiers could not install their sinister order with the muzzle of the guns and Dogs.



Furthermore, the book also shows why Napoleon hated Africans or blacks, even after he had succeeded in re-establishing slavery in the Caribbean dependencies of France. Napoleon ordered in 1867 that, all prefects carry a search, arrest and expulsions of all blacks living in France. For he feared that, leaving blacks in France might results in inter racial marriage out which mixed race children will come forth, thus defiling the purity of the White supreme race.



No wonder, when France capitulated in 1940; Adolf Hitler came to Paris and went straight to the Invalid, a famous or infamous hub, for tourists visiting the French capital to lay a wreath on the tomb of his mentor. Through out the occupation of France, Nazi hierarchies paid regular pilgrimage to the Invalid as a sign of respect to a man that, soon they were to perfect his gas chamber theory on the Jews. According to the book, Hitler so admired Napoleon Bonaparte that, he ordered the translations of most of his racist books.



One of which was “100 days”, while Hitler's alter ego Benito Mussolini even had some of the works of Napoleon transformed into plays staged in theatre halls in Italy. Fans of Napoleon around the World and in France in particular, have played down the contributions of Napoleon in the re-establishment of slavery and his role model to the likes of Hitler. In their effort to present Napoleon as an unblemished figure, who just wanted a great France, an ambition denied him by the British in the battle of waterloo, they have wiped out all defeats that, Napoleon suffered in the hands Blacks, a people he regarded as inferior.



Most French students do not know that, besides the repeated beatings that Napoleon received in the hands of the British, the greatest French battle, which they fought and lost, was fought in the Caribbean Island country of Haiti. According to the author, the battle took place at Viertieres on the 18th of November 1803 and ended with the victory of a rag tag black slave army against the heavily armed Napoleon Army, headed by Rochambeau. The Hero of that battle that the French lost was Jean-Jacques Dessalines.



Napoleon Bonaparte had a lot in common with Adolf Hitler. The former had aversion for blacks because it was his ancestry that he despised and was ashamed of, while the latter despised and hated Jews because one of his parents was Jewish. Napoleon's other reason for hating blacks was because; he prided himself to have been created to defend the White race. Perhaps his greatest shock was when his elder brother Joseph embarked on the spring of 1787 in search of their origin and discovered their African ancestry. What may have pushed elder Napoleon in such an adventure, the author does not tell his readers?



But the author only tells us that, in that enterprise, Joseph Bonaparte, the elder brother of Napoleon employed the services of a seasoned genealogist who was the curator of the archives of Sarzane in Toscane. An earthquake certainly occurred to Napoleon Bonaparte that year 1787, when the curator found out and confirmed to them that, they were direct descendants of a certain Francesco Buonaparte alias the Maure of Sarzane.



Their great grand, grand ancestor was a mercenary working for the Republic of Genoa and also that; all knew very well that, he was an African. Even though Napoleon Bonaparte hated his ancestry and made all efforts to humiliate anybody from the race of his ancestor, fate being what it is, Napoleon was deported to Africa or precisely on the African Atlantic Ocean Island of Saint Helena where he died.



Profile:-



Book's name: Le Crime de Napoleon

Language used: French

Name of author: Claude Ribbe

Editor/ Publisher: Privé

Number of pages: 206

Year of publication: 2005

Cost: Euro 18

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