Peut-on choisir autre que la dictature ou la démocratie?

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Guysanto
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Peut-on choisir autre que la dictature ou la démocratie?

Post by Guysanto » Mon Aug 18, 2008 12:36 pm

jeudi 14 août 2008

« La démocratie a la prétention d'universalité, mais les peuples ne sont pas partout pareils »
(G.O, ‘ces paradoxes insoupçonnés‘)

Par Gary Olius

Soumis à AlterPresse le 13 aout 2008


Je déteste la dictature, je me méfie de la démocratie et l'haitien désabusé que je suis - à cause de la décrépitude générale d'AyitiToma - me fait rêver d'un Etat fort pouvant servir de rampe de lancement à tout programme de sauvetage de la nation haitienne. Ma position peut paraitre drôle en ce monde exagérément manichéen, vu que la raison politique dominante veut que l'on soit dictateur ou démocrate et que l'on prenne parti soit pour la démocratie soit pour la dictature. Renvoyer dos à dos ces deux doctrines et explorer d'autres voies est considéré, sans aucune forme de discussion, comme un acte de folie. Mais, où est la liberté de choisir dans tout cela ?

Quand les éléments de tout un système se liguent pour faire croire que tout ne peut être que blanc ou noir, c'est la liberté qui est remise en question ; car entre ces deux extrêmes il existe une gamme de couleurs qui, non seulement donnent du goût à la vie mais aussi aident à colorer l'existence de l'espèce humain. Et, comme pour subtiliser la liberté des individus, le monde de la politique conçoit la chose autrement. Ainsi, il faut croire que la dictature et ce qu'on appelle aujourd'hui démocratie sont, à divers points de vue, des dénis de la liberté individuelle.

Démocratie, pouvoir du peuple par le peuple et pour le peuple donne aussi au peuple le droit de se suicider souverai-ne-ment dans leurs choix insensés. Et le pire est que même ceux qui sont d'avis contraire sont obligés de subir, malgré eux, les effets pervers de ce suicide collectif. Réciproquement, la dictature comme tyrannie d'un individu supporté par une minorité peut aussi constituer une hypothèque de la liberté des masses ou de la majorité. Ceci dit, réduire l'être humain à une balle de ping-pong condamné à rebondir entre les pontons de la démocratie et de la dictature équivaut à l'introduire dans un cercle vicieux d'où il n'en sortira jamais. Face à ce constat navrant, j'ai envie de reprendre en mes termes l'anathème de Heidegger en disant : « les politologues ne passent pas… et sont en panne d'inspiration »

Plus on observe avec attention le merdier dans lequel Haiti s'est enfoncée, plus on a tendance à attribuer plus de valeur au système électoral américain, qui s'impose comme un cas d'école dans le monde politique. Comparaison n'est pas raison, mais la situation politique d'Haiti montre ce que peut la démocratie en milieu d'analphabétisme massif, tout comme la situation des Etats-Unis apporte la preuve la plus éloquente que la démocratie ne saurait fonctionner correctement sans garde-fous. La formule des grands électeurs est un probant témoignage que les américains sont pleinement conscients des risques inhérents à la démocratie. Ladite formule constitue une véritable digue destinée à contrôler les débordements du système et l'empêcher de déraper ou de porter préjudice à l'existence de l'Etat et à son bon fonctionnement. De fait, la démocratie à l'haitienne fait aujourd'hui figure d'une rivière en crue et elle charrie du n'importe quoi dans nos institutions. Au nom du peuple ou de la sacro-sainte démocratie, des malades mentaux, des déviants, des narcotrafiquants, des crétins, des ignorants, des criminels, des dictateurs déguisés sont investis du plein pouvoir et imposent leur loi à toute une société et, cela, démocrati-que-ment.

Même dans ma posture critique, je concède volontiers qu'avec la démocratie libérale, on est capable du meilleur comme du pire. Ce système a fait ses preuves en Amérique du Nord et en Europe occidentale en plaçant, pour de bon, des pays comme les Etats-Unis, le Canada, la France et l'Angleterre (pour ne citer que ceux-là) sur les rails de la prospérité économique. Il a aussi montré ses limites dans la Caraibe, en Amérique centrale, en Afrique etc. en plongeant, peut-être pour de bon, des pays comme Haiti, le Salvador, le Nicaragua, le Honduras dans le cercle infernal « Etat Irresponsable – Analphabétisme Instrumentalisé – Pauvreté ». Dans l'examen de la réussite des uns et l'échec des autres, il y a une vérité qui s'impose : la démocratie libérale demande des pré-requis indispensables dont un pays ne saurait se passer sans s'exposer à des risques socio-économiques d'envergure. Il faut croire que c'est en voulant prendre un raccourci pour passer directement de la dictature à la démocratie libérale qu'AyitiToma s'est cassée le nez. Vouloir intégrer un système aussi sophistiqué sans l'adoption préalable d'une politique éducative viable et un cadre légal adéquat, c'est faire le choix d'une intégration de force ou par la petite porte. Cette prise d'assaut, me semble-t-il, a valu à Haiti ce qu'elle est aujourd'hui : un espace socio-économique indigne d'un pays âgé de 200 ans.

Cette façon d'appréhender la question peut nous aider à comprendre pourquoi les dirigeants des 20 dernières années, soit disant élus démocratiquement, n'arrêtent pas de justifier leur échec en ayant recours à l'existence de la dictature duvaliérienne qui a dominé le pays pendant 29 ans. Les innombrables souffrances du système dictatorial ont rendu très tentantes les jouissances de la démocratie et les leaders de 1986, ne voulant pas en assumer les coûts y afférents, préféraient jouer aux roulibeurs en faisant sauter imprudemment tous les verrous sociaux et économiques placés par le régime déchu, pensant que ces dispositions libertaires accélèreraient l'intégration du pays dans la démocratie libérale. Bien compté, mal calculé ! En fait, ce qui s'est passé est que, sous la pression des douleurs de la dictature et de notre désir irrépressible de nous en débarrasser comme par miracle, nous nous sommes carrément suicidés.

Ce suicide est manifeste dans ce paradoxe que nous vivons au quotidien depuis plusieurs décennies : le peuple est fier de la démocratie et est toujours prêt à s'enorgueillir, tandis qu'il a foncièrement honte de ses dirigeants dont il trouve - encore et encore - des arguments pour en renouveler le mandat. Comme quoi, manichéisme oblige, on est porté à aimer une caricature de démocratie rien que par dégout pour la dictature et, sachant cela, les nouveaux dictateurs se cachent sous un apparat démocratique pour tromper le peuple analphabète et souverain.

J'aurais aimé vivre dans une société où l'on apprécie la démocratie non pour sa dimension électoraliste mais pour ce qu'elle produit comme résultat. Ainsi, les dirigeants démocratiquement élus comprendraient qu'ils sont investis de plus de responsabilités que de privilèges. Pour cela, il faudrait que le souverain peuple accepte d'utiliser son pouvoir de sanction contre ceux qui ne se sont pas montrés à la hauteur de leur mandat. Mais je doute qu'il puisse le faire étant donné son extrême dénuement, car ici le vote dans une élection n'a que le prix d'un petit plat de riz et généralement les politiciens les plus malintentionnés sont soit les plus fortunés soit les bénéficiaires privilégiés de l'élite économique crasseuse qui ne vit que combines et de monopole. Tant que perdure ce cercle vicieux, ce qu'on persiste à appeler démocratie en Haiti finira toujours par être une conspiration contre le pays…

Dr Roger Malebranche

Post by Dr Roger Malebranche » Tue Aug 19, 2008 7:20 pm

AMEN.

I have been ranting for years about classical democracy in our Haitian society. I don't believe Haiti is ready for a democracy a la USA. We need education of our masses first. Otherwise the country will always be ripe for shameless demagogues with promises and honeyed tongues. When I was 20 I lived the elysean fantasy that all our poor were noble and exploited and our elite was a bunch of exploiters drinking the blood of their brothers and sisters. I don't think things are that simple. Not anymore. We have kidnappers, exploiters, killers, bad Haitians in all shades and all levels of our rainbow society.

Looking at the present parties in power, looking at their asinine and criminal behavior I feel like screaming " ENOUGH IS ENOUGH ". The country is overpopulated, deforested. Our oceans are devoid of fishing stocks (DEAD ZONES), the agriculture is non existing, AIDS reigns supreme etc... and look at our democratically elected leaders. Haiti is not going to survive on fancy names like AYITI or "sloganic" parties like Lespwa, Lavalas etc... Let's get serious here.

There is no easy way out. American, British, French democracies are not going to work for Haiti because we don't have their basic parameters. And this is why many Haitians have been dreaming of the idyllic days of PAPA DOC. Can you figure that one out? My God, Man!

The Duvalier days? Good days? If not for anything else this should show ALL OF US educated Haitians that our foray into the realm of American type democracy was a big mistake. Perhaps we can try that experiment again when the country is 90% literate and Haitians realize that promising is not the same as governing and dividing in order to reach and hold onto power is not acceptable anymore. A strong but SANE leader? An iron hand in a velvet glove? I would go for that.

AND LET THE STONING BEGIN.

Ideas anyone?

Serge
Posts: 321
Joined: Mon Jan 01, 2007 10:39 am

Post by Serge » Wed Aug 20, 2008 6:18 pm

My friend Roger,

You end your text with these words: "and let the stoning begin" in capital letters. Let me tell you that I do not plan to stone you. I will be rather brief, because those issues have been dealt with sufficiently in the past.

As far as the the text by Mr. Olius, I have the feeling that he refers to democracy and dictatorship as some big entities with a life of their own.

"Démocratie, pouvoir du peuple par le peuple et pour le peuple donne aussi au peuple le droit de se suicider souverainement dans leurs choix insensés. Et le pire est que même ceux qui sont d'avis contraire sont obligés de subir, malgré eux, les effets pervers de ce suicide collectif. Réciproquement, la dictature comme tyrannie d'un individu supporté par une minorité peut aussi constituer une hypothèque de la liberté des masses ou de la majorité."

I would just to remind that people do democracy, people do dictatorship. Whatever the system, human beings are the ones doing the good or the bad and the ugly. The system will only work to the extent that people set up institutions aimed at preserving it, reinforcing it and perfecting it. When you have a country where no such traditions exist, you have problems. The difference between, say Haiti and the US, for example, is that you have institutions that, for more than 200 years, have been functioning, perfected, adapted and are still being adapted. Remove those institutions, and you will see the country descend into chaos. Now why don't we have those institutions in Haiti, is another issue that will take way too long to discuss here.

I do not see why we have to use the United States as a model for democracy, especially in this day and age, when this country applies different democracy standards domestically or abroad. Each country has had a different evolution and this has to be taken into account.

The issue raised by Mr. Olius would have been more useful, in my humble opinion, if he had posed the problem of how it is that Haiti got to produce the kind of people who have created such havoc on the economic and social structure of the country for more than 200 years.

Sure, there are some common denominators in democracy for all countries, but each country has its own characteristics as you know. I do not know if I agree with you that "our foray into into the realm of American type democracy was a big mistake." Whether you want to admit it or not, the Haitian people have shown remarkable courage and determination in wanting to choose their leaders and claim their rights to democracy. Illiteracy cannot be invoked to say that they do not know their rights to democracy. This myth was debunked in 1990, in 1995 and in 2001. The rate of participation of the Haitian people to these elections were consistently higher than in the United States. Now, it is our leaders and our political parties (I agree with you that these parties are a disaster) who have proven to be incompetent, corrupt, and totally ineffective. Those who lead are the ones who have to assume the responsibilities of protecting democratic institutions and when they do not, we have what we are witnessing today. This is true in any country.

If you think that a country has to be 90% literate to experience democracy, you are mistaken. Look at Hitler's Germany, Italy's Mussolini and so on. I do not believe that that should be the criteria. It would be more to the point to say that when we get leaders who are enlightened about their role in leading our country, in protecting our national interest, in putting an end to the apartheid conditions that prevail now between the have and the have-nots, then, we will be on our way. This is long overdue.

To those who still long for the Duvalier years, how short is their memory! They only need to read "Fort Dimanche, Dungeon of Death - Fort Dimanche Fort La Mort" by Patrick Lemoine; the many reports of the Human Rights Commission of the OAS for that period and numerous other available documents. Then they would realize the dimension of the damage done to Haiti by this dictatorship. But then, they have to want to do it, they have to want to know the real truth.

Finally, let me recommend to you, if you do not have it already, and to all of you on the forum, the book by Peter Hallward: Damning the Flood. As far as I am concerned, this is one of the most perceptive books I have read on Haiti. And no one will be able to say that the author is partisan. He looks at the Haiti's class situation and systematically traces the roots of the many problems we continue to face in Haiti.

I will stop there for now,

kenbe fèm,

Serge

Dr Roger Malebranche

Post by Dr Roger Malebranche » Thu Aug 21, 2008 2:58 pm

Hi Young Jedi:

How are you? My quotation : "Let the stoning begin" was in anticipation of the flack I expected to get from fellow ANNPALE'ERS. I was hoping Guy was going to cast the first stone but he has been keeping low ... planning probably to pounce when I least expect it. He is that way you know.

I respectfully disagree on many of your points and when you reach my age you will understand where I am coming from and why I feel the way I do. Was it Winston Churchill who said years ago that "whoever was conservative at 20 did not have a heart but whoever was liberal at 60 did not have a brain"? I would not put things in such a blunt way but if truth is to be known I have conservative sides but I also have liberal sides. In other words I have a balanced view of our world and its inhabitants.

My way to judge things is to look at RESULTS... results of bad policies instituted by democratically elected bad politicians, results of the right by illiterate voters to fall prey to the glib tongues of demagogues. And what do we have at the end of that experiment? A present day Haiti in all Her poverty, anarchy and crime. Whether you agree with me or not an educated voter makes MOST OF THE TIMES a better voter than an illiterate one. The educated one has or is supposed to have a better view of the multiple faces of the equation... I hope anyway.

You imply that if the majority of our people decides to behave the way of the proverbial lemur they should be allowed to do so even if in the process they take a few reluctant lemurs to disaster with them. I disagree with that theory. Haiti would be better off having professional people running the show and taking enlightened decisions on Her behalf. Our elected politicians don't seem to have a clue about how to run the country.

You brought the subjects of Hitler and Mussolini. You are muddying the waters there. Tomatoes and coconuts cannot be compared and arguments are not won that way (if arguments between Haitians are ever won).

I thought Aristide was going to be the answer to our problems. He loved his country. He loved his people. That was not enough. Good intentions are not going to revive our country, and leaving its fate to an illiterate voter base is a good recipe to slide into total chaos. As I said many times before, Haiti has serious problems and She needs serious people to address them. Leaving her fate in the hands of incompetent politicians elected by a loving but illiterate constituency, because those politicians knew what code words to use and promises to give, is akin to suicide. I am a Haitian lemur, an educated one, and I will keep yelling at my fellow Haitian lemurs whether they are educated or illiterate : "Change the course, change the course, WE are heading for disaster".

Forever Haitian.

Keep well my friend. I hope to meet you one of these days.
Roger

Serge
Posts: 321
Joined: Mon Jan 01, 2007 10:39 am

Post by Serge » Thu Aug 21, 2008 7:13 pm

My dear Roger,

I was not really throwing stones at you, nor do I intend to. That was not my intention either to change your mind, but it is always good to exchange views and discuss things and agree to disagree on one issue or another. This time, I will not be as long as the last time. I would like to say the following, taking into account that we are dealing with Haiti, with its particular traditions and history.

I totally agree with you that the way to judge something is through results. That is true of anything anywhere, Haiti included. However, we have a peculiar situation though in Haiti. If in theory, , an educated voter is supposed to make a better choice than an illiterate one, in Haiti, you will admit that this is difficult to apply because of our literacy situation. Then, are you going to exclude the illiterate majority from exercising its right to vote because if he does, he will do a bad choice? If so, are you suggesting that democracy is imposssible in Haiti because you have too many illiterate? By the same token, does that mean that the illiterate majority does not know what it wants, that it does not know that he has a right to work, to eat, to have a roof over its head, that he has the right to go to school?

All these are human rights that educated or not, everyone is entitled to. I am bringing all this up to refer to your statement that "Haiti would be better off having professional people running the show and taking enlightened decisions on Her behalf. Our elected politicians don't seem to have a clue about how to run the country." Without knowing it, you have brought up the major problem Haiti is facing it today. It is that we have a crisis of leadership, of governance of vision, on top the critical class problem that dates from way back. You cannot fault the illiterate majority for voting those politicians to office, because usually, during their campaigns, they do look good and promise great things. Once they get what they want, they show their true colors. You are implying that the illiterate majority consistantly elects bad people intentionnally. Yet it is this illiterate majority who rose against the Duvalier regime, it is this illiterate majority who, aware of its civic and patriotic duties, consistantly votes en masse, while the literate minority stays home or travels when Voting day happens.

The crisis of leadership in Haiti is quite similar to the one that affected Bolivia some years ago, when a conservative oligarchy refused to understand that Bolivia belonged to them as well as to the immense Indian majority and that they had to find a way to share the cake among all. That is why Evo Morales was elected and, despite all the efforts of this oliogarchy, Evo Morales has just being confirmed in his post by more than 60% of the vote.

The crisis in Haiti is due to an incompetent and discredited political class, an intellectual class which writes and publishes excellent books, makes incredibly pertinent analysis of Haiti's problems. But the moment they decide to get into politics, they sully their pants and the whole country in the process. Witness the shameful heads of the political parties busy "negotiating " ministerial positions in the Gvt., as in a market negotiating prices for an item. This is utterky disgraceful!

These politicians are all issued fron the same political class. The problem is that they are so discredited that they cannot mount a credible political campaign and get to power legally. They have to resort to coup d'état as in 2004. Now, to say that for the majority to knowingly put its faith in the hands of incompetent leaders is "akin to suicide", is to underestimate the capacity of this illiterate majority to understand what is going on, to feel pain and to determine who is the cause of that pain. That is a concept that has been prevailing for too long in Haitian society: those who did not to school, do not know what they want et ne t'en déplaise, Roger, Aristide's words were quite to the point : Alfabèt pa bèt. We have to accept this if we want things to change, because those leaders, this class which have been leading the country have failed and that is the unfortunate reality in Haiti today.

I do not know if I will live to see it, but, one of these days, things will burst and the situation will get much worse than it is now, and then the politician and the elites, with their international allies will cry fool and try to repress again. I sincerely hope I am wrong, but unless this oblivious political class makes correction, that is what will happen.

I will conclude then by joining you in saying: Change the course! Indeed, it is long overdue!

I do not believee one minute that what I write will change your mind. Not at all. We just have to agree to disagree. However, we both can hope that things will change for the better in Haiti and that wee will be able to argue in Haiti, under a palm tree, on a beach if possible, drinking coconut juice.....

Toujou kenbe fèm1

Serge

By the way I would like to accept the promotion to Jedi. But I cannot accept it, because it does not come with the power I would need to do the cleaning I would like to do in Haiti.....Yon jou nan rankontre.

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