Search found 151 matches

by Charles Arthur
Sun Nov 06, 2005 12:08 pm
Forum: 2005
Topic: Civil society organizations' action yields result
Replies: 18
Views: 9799

Civil society organizations' action yields result

Haiti: Civil society organizations' action yields result - 4 November 2005 Latortue at last moves to sign up to Chávez's PetroCaribe deal. Reports in the Haitian media state that Haiti has begun negotiations to join PetroCaribe, the Caribbean-wide agreement on the supply of Venezuelan oil on concess...
by Charles Arthur
Thu Oct 06, 2005 6:40 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: Caribbean nations will benefit from Venezuelan oil agreement
Replies: 2
Views: 3325

Trinidad and Haiti stay out of PetroCaribe

Extract from "Region’s nations jump aboard Petrocaribe bandwagon" by Charles Arthur, Latinamerica Press, 5 October 2005 [quote]Trinidad and Tobago, which also declined to sign the Petrocaribe deal, already supplies Caricom member states with a total of about 60,000 barrels a day, and Prime Minister ...
by Charles Arthur
Mon Oct 03, 2005 10:24 am
Forum: HT/RD issues
Topic: Hello from the Dominican Republic
Replies: 4
Views: 4111

Let's build, let's move forward

Welcome Pedro. At the moment I am pushing the British development agencies and human rights groups to do more to support Haitian and Dominican counterparts that are alarmed by the spate of murders and violent attacks on Haitians and Dominican-Haitians in the DR. best regards Charles Arthur Haiti Sup...
by Charles Arthur
Mon Oct 03, 2005 10:13 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: Int'l Tribunal on Haiti Session shows horrors of occuppation
Replies: 5
Views: 3888

Batay Ouvriye responds to allegations

[quote]RESPONSE TO SLANDER AT THE “HAITI INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL”, SEP. 2005: New Heights Attained By The Haiti-Progrès Current And Its Allies On September 25th, 2005, we, at Batay Ouvriye, learned that a supposed “tribunal” organized by the Haiti Progrès current, the International Action Center and ...
by Charles Arthur
Fri Sep 30, 2005 8:16 am
Forum: HT/RD issues
Topic: R. Dominicaine : Neuf Haitiens tués en 8 jours
Replies: 8
Views: 5874

Translation of the GARR press release

below my translation of the recent GARR press release Charles Arthur HSG Murderous attacks on Haitian nationals in the Dominican Republic are continuing Port-au-Prince, 27 Sept. 2005 - Between 16-25 September 2005, nine Haitians and people of Haitian descent have been found dead in the Dominican Rep...
by Charles Arthur
Wed Sep 14, 2005 9:43 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: Haiti - Silenced: Int'll Journalists Expose Media Censorship
Replies: 0
Views: 2178

Haiti - Silenced: Int'll Journalists Expose Media Censorship

Silenced: International Journalists Expose Media Censorship Edited by David Dadge http://www.prometheusbooks.com “This hard-hitting collection shows that pressure and persecution are still inescapable aspects of a journalist's job description ... a vigorous defense of press freedoms by journalists w...
by Charles Arthur
Tue Sep 13, 2005 7:52 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: Elections: will the environment be an issue?
Replies: 13
Views: 8794

For those interested in the Fondation Haitienne de L'Environ

[quote]FHE (Fondation Haitienne de L'Environnement/The Haitian Environmental Foundation), founded in 1999, is led by Jean Andre Victor, Haiti's most prominent agronomist. The foundation focuses on educational programs, teaching farmers soil conservation methods (and ways to finance them). Another pr...
by Charles Arthur
Tue Sep 13, 2005 7:48 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: Elections: will the environment be an issue?
Replies: 13
Views: 8794

For those interested in the issue of recycling plastic waste

[quote]Vers la rentabilisation des déchets plastiques en Haiti Le Nouvelliste 9 Septembre 2005 La réunion organisée par la Fondation Haitienne de l'Environnement (FHE) à l'hôtel Montana le mercredi 7 septembre 2005 dans le cadre du projet "Lave Je Pòtoprens" qui vise à recycler des déchets plastique...
by Charles Arthur
Fri Sep 09, 2005 7:12 am
Forum: About Music
Topic: CD: Voodoo Drums of Haiti
Replies: 1
Views: 3751

CD: Voodoo Drums of Haiti

Voodoo Drums Voodoo Drums | Soul Jazz Records By Nils Jacobson http://www.allaboutjazz.com/reviews/ When one examines the role rhythm plays in jazz, it's a complicated affair. The early introduction of European instruments, which essentially make up the modern jazz drummer's kit, brought with it the...
by Charles Arthur
Fri Sep 09, 2005 7:09 am
Forum: About Films
Topic: Film: "Heading South"
Replies: 3
Views: 4364

Film: "Heading South"

[quote]RAMPLING RADIANT AT 60 IN ROLE ABOUT SEX TOURISM IN HAITI VENICE, Italy, Sept 8 (AFP) - Sipping a coffee in a small cafe on the Venice Lido, Charlotte Rampling reflects on romantic love and says she believes that only the finest of faultlines exist between love and disaster. "We think we're c...
by Charles Arthur
Fri Sep 09, 2005 3:08 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: Elections: will the environment be an issue?
Replies: 13
Views: 8794

La Fondation Haitienne pour l'Environnement?

Does anyone know anything about the Fondation Haitienne pour la Science, la Technologie et l'Environnement which I think is the same as the Fondation Haitienne pour l'Environnement? I understand it was founded by Daniel Brisard, who is currently Directeur général du Ministère de l'Environnement. tha...
by Charles Arthur
Fri Sep 09, 2005 3:05 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: Elections: will the environment be an issue?
Replies: 13
Views: 8794

Le projet

8 Septembre 2005 Le Nouvelliste Une alternative à l'insalubrité des rues Ce mercredi 7 septembre 2005 à l'hôtel Montana, la Fondation Haitienne de l'Environnement (FHE) en partenariat avec le ministère de l'Environnement, les mairies de Cité Soleil et de Pétion-Ville, la Banque de l'Union Haitienne ...
by Charles Arthur
Fri Sep 09, 2005 3:02 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: Elections: will the environment be an issue?
Replies: 13
Views: 8794

Elections: will the environment be an issue?

6 September 2005 In the run-up to the elections in Haiti, will candidates be asked for their policies to deal with Haiti's envrionmental crisis? What will be their position on agrarian reform? On reforestation and soil erosion? What do they propose to do to prevent a repeat of the Mapou and Gonaives...
by Charles Arthur
Tue Sep 06, 2005 8:32 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: Caribbean news in English
Replies: 0
Views: 1726

Caribbean news in English

Announcing a new service provided by AlterPresse, the alternative Haitian news agency - Caribbean news in English. http://www.alterpresse.org/rubrique.php3?id_rubrique=34 Eye on the Caribbean is a brief review of news from the Caribbean region: politics, economics, the environment, human rights, ref...
by Charles Arthur
Mon Sep 05, 2005 4:12 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: NEWS FROM ANDEYO - August 2005
Replies: 0
Views: 1380

NEWS FROM ANDEYO - August 2005

NEWS FROM ANDEYO - AUGUST 2005 As a contribution to the easing of the vice-like grip exercised by the 'Republic of Port-au-Prince', the Haiti Support Group is providing a monthly news round-up from the rest of the country where three-quarters of the population live Inauguration d'un marché public à ...
by Charles Arthur
Fri Aug 26, 2005 8:36 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: Haiti: Let's hear it for another part of civil society
Replies: 0
Views: 1580

Haiti: Let's hear it for another part of civil society

From the Laborstart website http://www.laborstart.org/cgi-bin/dbman//db.cgi?t&uid=default&Country=Haiti&view_records=View+Records <a href="http://www.laborstart.org/cgi-bin/dbman//db.cgi?db=default&uid=default&ID=&Header=&URL=&Country=Haiti&Date=&Priority=&UserID=&keyword=&mh=100&sb=04&so=descend&vi...
by Charles Arthur
Tue Aug 23, 2005 3:28 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: NEWS FROM ANDEYO - July 2005
Replies: 0
Views: 1413

NEWS FROM ANDEYO - July 2005

As a contribution to the easing of the vice-like grip exercised by the 'Republic of Port-au-Prince', the Haiti Support Group is providing a monthly news round-up from the rest of the country where three-quarters of the population live. Jakmel Film Festival - 15 July 2005, (Tequila Minsky, Heritagek...
by Charles Arthur
Tue Aug 23, 2005 3:23 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: Gilles et la Fusion favorables au retablissement de l'Armee
Replies: 0
Views: 1384

Gilles et la Fusion favorables au retablissement de l'Armee

[quote]Le candidat de la Fusion des Forces démocratiques s'est exprimé sans équivoque en faveur du rétablissement des Forces Armées d'Haiti. Serge Gilles croit qu'il n'y a pas d'autres alternatives à la crise sécuritaire actuelle, une fois que les forces onusiennes auront quitté le sol national. Seu...
by Charles Arthur
Mon Aug 22, 2005 11:24 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: I wonder what Guy Philippe says about his hero?
Replies: 0
Views: 1690

I wonder what Guy Philippe says about his hero?

[quote]Chile: Fraudulent privatization Noticias Aliadas. Aug 18, 2005 Chile lost US$6 billion for the privatization of public businesses during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet (1973-90), according to a report of an investigative committee of the Chamber of Deputies released July 20. Some 700 pu...
by Charles Arthur
Fri Jul 01, 2005 7:47 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: NEWS FROM ANDEYO - June 2005
Replies: 0
Views: 1398

NEWS FROM ANDEYO - June 2005

NEWS FROM ANDEYO - June 2005 As a contribution to the easing of the vice-like grip exercised by the 'Republic of Port-au-Prince', the Haiti Support Group is providing a monthly news round-up from the rest of the country where three-quarters of the population live. USAID Field Report - 1 June (USAID)...
by Charles Arthur
Wed Jun 01, 2005 5:53 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: Members of the new 'national dialogue' commission
Replies: 0
Views: 1530

Members of the new 'national dialogue' commission

Yvon Feuillé, Lavalas Family party Senator; Goodwork Noël, member of Guy Philippe's Front de Reconstruction Nationale party and a former departmental police chief; Max Beauvoir, one of country's best-known houngans (Vodou priests); Joseph Gayot, former archbishop of Cap-Haitien; Edouard Paultre, lea...
by Charles Arthur
Wed Jun 01, 2005 5:51 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: NEWS FROM ANDEYO - May 2005
Replies: 0
Views: 1362

NEWS FROM ANDEYO - May 2005

NEWS FROM ANDEYO - May 2005 As a contribution to the easing of the vice-like grip exercised by the 'Republic of Port-au-Prince', the Haiti Support Group is providing a monthly news round-up from the rest of the country where three-quarters of the population live. 9 Mai 2005, La ville des Cayes à acc...
by Charles Arthur
Tue May 03, 2005 8:52 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: NEWS FROM ANDEYO - April 2005
Replies: 0
Views: 1308

NEWS FROM ANDEYO - April 2005

NEWS FROM ANDEYO - April 2005 As a contribution to the easing of the vice-like grip exercised by the 'Republic of Port-au-Prince', the Haiti Support Group is providing a monthly news round-up from the rest of the country where three-quarters of the population live. Décès de Robenson Laraque à Cuba. ...
by Charles Arthur
Tue May 03, 2005 2:55 am
Forum: Current Social Issues
Topic: Un psychiatre s'il vous plait!
Replies: 0
Views: 3749

Un psychiatre s'il vous plait!

Le Nouvelliste - 8 mars 2005 Un psychiatre s'il vous plait! Environ une vingtaine de médecins exercent la psychiatrie en Haiti et se sont tous établis dans la « République de Port-au-Prince » et/ou dans la zone métropolitaine de Port-au-Prince. Cette information a été confirmée par l'ensenble des pr...
by Charles Arthur
Tue May 03, 2005 2:53 am
Forum: Our Story
Topic: L'Hôpital Défilée de Beudet
Replies: 1
Views: 3918

L'Hôpital Défilée de Beudet

Le Nouvelliste 5 avril 2005 Un patrimoine à l'abandon L'Hôpital Défilée de Beudet (HDB), l'un des deux (2) centres hospitaliers publics du pays spécialisés en santé mentale, fait face aujourd'hui à de graves problèmes logistiques et économiques et semble crier au secours dans un désert. L'écho de sa...
by Charles Arthur
Wed Apr 13, 2005 8:14 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: Mochrena: Avec "l'aide de Dieu"
Replies: 1
Views: 1650

Mochrena: Avec "l'aide de Dieu"

From Le Nouvelliste, 11 avril 2005 [quote] (...) Après lecture par Me Fritz Clerveau Pierre de la résolution du congrès consacrant le dirigeant du MOCHRENHA, Luc Mésadieu, candidat à la présidence, toute l'assistance s'est mise debout pour l'acclamer. Dans son allocution qui prenait l'allure d'une d...
by Charles Arthur
Tue Apr 05, 2005 4:43 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: NEWS FROM ANDEYO - March 2005
Replies: 0
Views: 1419

NEWS FROM ANDEYO - March 2005

As a contribution to the easing of the vice-like grip exercised by the 'Republic of Port-au-Prince', the Haiti Support Group is providing a monthly news round-up from the rest of the country where three-quarters of the population live. UN official on attack on Haitian police station - 7 March 2005 (...
by Charles Arthur
Wed Mar 23, 2005 5:57 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: Keeping the Peace in Haiti? New report on Minustah
Replies: 0
Views: 1460

Keeping the Peace in Haiti? New report on Minustah

[quote]March 2005 Keeping the Peace in Haiti? - Harvard Law School/Global Justice Center (Centro de Justiça Global) _____________________________________________________ EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A little over a year since international pressure and an armed rebellion forced the departure of President Jean-...
by Charles Arthur
Tue Mar 22, 2005 10:07 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: NEWS FROM ANDEYO - February 2005
Replies: 0
Views: 1373

NEWS FROM ANDEYO - February 2005

As a contribution to the easing of the vice-like grip exercised by the 'Republic of Port-au-Prince', the Haiti Support Group is providing a monthly news round-up from the rest of the country where three-quarters of the population live. NEWS FROM ANDEYO - February 2005 Signature d'un accord pour la r...
by Charles Arthur
Wed Mar 16, 2005 7:52 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: What happened to President Gerard Gourgue?
Replies: 54
Views: 32781

He's in France.

Gerard Gourgue is Haiti's ambassador to UNESCO or, in other words, head of Haiti's Permanent Delegation to UNESCO. UNESCO is based in Paris.
by Charles Arthur
Wed Mar 16, 2005 7:45 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: Two more candidates - still no ideas
Replies: 2
Views: 2034

Two more candidates - still no ideas

Samir Mourra, 49, a Miami businessman running under the Mobilization for the Progress of Haiti party, wants to revive the country, which he says was destroyed under Aristide. A former brother-in-law of "Baby Doc," he says he had no connection to the dictator's regime. "I decided to get involved in t...
by Charles Arthur
Wed Feb 23, 2005 2:08 pm
Forum: 2005
Topic: Bazin calls for inclusion of Fanmi Lavalas
Replies: 7
Views: 3547

What's so great about JBA?

Marilyn wrote: [quote]One of the stated goals of U.S. Foreign Policy, this time around, is to embrace Lavalas WITHOUT Aristide. And some folks will surely fall for the ploy. [/quote] There were many, many problems with the Fanmi Lavalas Party government of 2000-2004. One of those problems was the at...
by Charles Arthur
Mon Feb 21, 2005 1:04 pm
Forum: 2005
Topic: Bazin calls for inclusion of Fanmi Lavalas
Replies: 7
Views: 3547

Bazin calls for inclusion of Fanmi Lavalas

[quote]Port-au-Prince, February 8, 2005 (AHP)- The leader of the MIDH party (Movement for the Establishment of Democracy in Haiti) Marc Bazin, indicated Tuesday that no serious election is possible in Haiti without Lavalas, which constitutes the majority party. There are many people who are way off ...
by Charles Arthur
Fri Feb 18, 2005 6:50 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: Création à Port-au-Prince d'une nouvelle coalition politique
Replies: 0
Views: 1317

Création à Port-au-Prince d'une nouvelle coalition politique

[quote]Port-au-Prince, 17 février 2005 -(AHP)- Une nouvelle coalition politique a vu le jour ce jeudi à Port-au-Prince. Le Front National des Partis Indépendants (FRONTPAIN) qui regroupe 5 partis, le PAIN, le Parti Démocrate Institutionnaliste (PDI), le parti National du Travail (PNT), Le Parti Soci...
by Charles Arthur
Fri Feb 18, 2005 6:47 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: Lavalas demeurerait la première force politique d'Haiti
Replies: 0
Views: 1400

Lavalas demeurerait la première force politique d'Haiti

En Haiti, les autorités s'organisent pour enrayer les violences 16 février 2005 - Le Monde [quote]Le grand point d'interrogation demeure la participation de la Famille Lavalas, le parti de l'ex-président Aristide. Malgré le refus de ce dernier, plusieurs anciens barons de son régime, comme le sénate...
by Charles Arthur
Thu Feb 17, 2005 3:52 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: More on new political parties
Replies: 0
Views: 1358

More on new political parties

In its most recent report the OAS has this: [quote]Several new parties have emerged since the events of February, including MODEREH, led by former Lavalas Senator Dany Toussaint, Haiti Union 2002 led by the former Governor of the Central Bank Bonivert Claude, formerly associated with the Mouvement p...
by Charles Arthur
Sat Feb 12, 2005 10:20 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: Haitian Times on candidates
Replies: 0
Views: 1439

Haitian Times on candidates

See below part of an article in The Haitian Times newspaper. The online version is incomplete - hence we don't get to read the part about Preval....... [quote]Get Set for Haiti’s 2005 Elections Préval’s Hat Should be Thrown into the Ring By Hudes Desrameaux For all intent and purposes, I was close t...
by Charles Arthur
Mon Feb 07, 2005 2:59 pm
Forum: 2005
Topic: Status of the Freedom of the Press in Haiti
Replies: 4
Views: 2319

Ahead of my soon-to-be-completed review of the state of media freedom in Haiti in 2004 for the Vienna-based International Press Institute, here is something for Mr Bajeux to chew on........ Haiti Progres newspaper, January 26, 2005 New Police and Occupation Tactics: Evacuations and Executions (...) ...
by Charles Arthur
Tue Feb 01, 2005 2:37 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: OTI/HTI/IOM/DDR - alphabet soup = FADH?
Replies: 0
Views: 1332

OTI/HTI/IOM/DDR - alphabet soup = FADH?

Following on from Marilyn's excellent expose of IFES, perhaps we should also follow the process of re-establishing the FAd'H: [quote]Source: United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Date: 31 Dec 2004 USAID Field Report Haiti Dec 2004 Program Description In response to the recent po...
by Charles Arthur
Tue Jan 25, 2005 10:03 am
Forum: 2005
Topic: Latest Human Rights Report on Haiti
Replies: 12
Views: 7346

Michel Nau asks: [quote]Should we wait for the mainstream Human Rights Organizations such as Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, and the United Nations Human Rights to submit their 2004 report?[/quote] I say why wait? Amnesty International's annual report is still being written, but they have...
by Charles Arthur
Mon Jan 17, 2005 2:06 pm
Forum: 2005
Topic: The 'political class' likes the idea of money for nothing
Replies: 0
Views: 1390

The 'political class' likes the idea of money for nothing

Signal FM web site news item dated 12 January 2005: "The political class is reacting favourably to the proposed idea of funding for political parties. The leader of KID welcomed Prime Minister Latortue's declarations on the subject with some satisfaction. Evans Paul hopes however that the internatio...
by Charles Arthur
Tue Dec 07, 2004 5:16 am
Forum: Current Social Issues
Topic: Mochrena - it's all Satan's fault!
Replies: 10
Views: 7348

Mochrena - it's all Satan's fault!

The following appeal for donations to help flood victims in Gonaives has been made to an organisation in the UK. I am bringing it to your attention because it is a clear statement of Mochrena's pitch. Now we know - Haiti's poverty is all Satan's doing!! Charles Arthur [quote]Please help us support t...
by Charles Arthur
Fri Nov 26, 2004 3:35 am
Forum: 2004
Topic: Alarming increase in the number of rapes
Replies: 2
Views: 2682

Women's organisations denounce gunmen, ex-FAd'H

25 November - The National Advocacy Coordination for Women's Rights (Coordination Nationale de Plaidoyer pour les Droits des Femmes - CONAP) has commemorated international day against violence against women with activities in Place Catherine Flon in the central Champ-de-Mars park. The theme of the r...
by Charles Arthur
Thu Nov 25, 2004 12:10 pm
Forum: 2004
Topic: Alarming increase in the number of rapes
Replies: 2
Views: 2682

Re: Alarming increase in the number of rapes

Alarming increase in the number of rapes Since I wrote that press release, I have now received a copy of the UNICEF report of their mission to Gonaives, and it does not throw any further light on the issue. For the record, here is the relevant section of that report on the UNICEF mission to Gonaives...
by Charles Arthur
Thu Sep 30, 2004 8:05 am
Forum: 2004
Topic: The floods - who is to blame?
Replies: 9
Views: 7489

Re: Sources to calculations and documents

[quote]Mr. Arthur: Could you please give the exact primary and secondary sources for the following calculations/figures: a) "only 0.2% of the US$560 million foreign assistance allocated to Haiti during the mid to late 1990s was assigned to the environment." b) "At an international donors conference ...
by Charles Arthur
Wed Sep 29, 2004 2:26 am
Forum: 2004
Topic: The floods - who is to blame?
Replies: 9
Views: 7489

The floods - who is to blame?

A slightly edited version of the text below appeared in the British newspaper, The Guardian, on 29 September 2004. Squalid excuses Deforestation has left Haiti vulnerable to natural disaster. But it is the failure to address the grinding poverty of local farmers rather than their own greed that is t...
by Charles Arthur
Wed Jun 30, 2004 2:12 am
Forum: 2004
Topic: On sexual violence against women in Haiti
Replies: 2
Views: 3712

"L'augmentation des cas de viol et autres violences...

Jeudi, 27 mai 2004 10:40 - Radio Metropole Symposium sur le SIDA et la violence sexiste (FNUAP = Fonds des Nations Unies Pour la Population) « Femmes, filles, VIH/Sida, violence sexiste », c'est autour de ce thème que se déroule, à l'hôtel Montana, un important symposium, du 26 au 28 mai 2004. Cette...
by Charles Arthur
Wed Jun 30, 2004 1:54 am
Forum: 2004
Topic: On sexual violence against women in Haiti
Replies: 2
Views: 3712

Two recent reports about rape in Haiti (in French)

Haiti Progres - 16 Juin, 2004 Les autorités policières ont annoncé le mercredi 9 juin dernier la poursuite de leur campagne contre le banditisme dans le pays. Elles ont fait état de l'arrestation d'une trentaine de bandits dans plusieurs quartiers de la région métropolitaine entre le 4 et le 6 juin....
by Charles Arthur
Wed Jun 30, 2004 1:51 am
Forum: 2004
Topic: On sexual violence against women in Haiti
Replies: 2
Views: 3712

On sexual violence against women in Haiti

Communiqué de presse - Pour diffusion immédiate Nous réclamons la justice sociale ! Kay Fanm, organisation haitienne de pression pour la promotion et la défense des droits de la femme Montréal - jeudi 29 avril 2004-« Les gouvernements haitiens successifs n'ont rien fait pour combattre la violence fa...
by Charles Arthur
Fri Jun 04, 2004 10:01 am
Forum: 2004
Topic: Where is the rest of civil society?
Replies: 0
Views: 2064

Where is the rest of civil society?

To: The Editor Haiti en Marche 173 N.W. 94th Street Miami, FL 33150 USA From: The Haiti Support Group UK Dear Sir, The Haiti Support Group was puzzled to read the following statement in the 31 May issue of your newspaper regarding the Interim Cooperation Framework meetings that have been taking plac...